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Representative sampling, Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) and chemometrics (multivariate data analysis) constitute a complement of necessary scientific competences for reliable decision making.

The Theory of Sampling (TOS) is of critical importance for process industries:

  • Collaboration is essential – Rodolfo Romanach, Olav Christie, Francis Pitard


  • Exploration
  • Minerals processing
  • Refining
  • Bioenergy
  • Production & biomass conversion
  • Pharma
  • Food
  • Feed
  • Beverage
  • Plastics
  • Dairy
  • Geo-science
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Emerging recycling industries
  • Circulatory economy
  • Commercial laboratories

Disregarding TOS competence results in significantly larger decision uncertainties than necessary and compromises scientific credibility for universities, regulating bodies, authorities and governmental institutions. Disregarding TOS may affect company bottom lines significantly due to inferior or faulty decisions with adverse, but unnecessary effects on ROI. Disregarding TOS may seriously affect company reputation. Disregarding TOS is a breach of due diligence.

TOS and PAT contribute towards more fully developed corporate social responsibility (CSR) regarding unwanted environmental, process and resource utilisation side-effects. Disregarding TOS may jeopardize public health. The Theory and Practice of Sampling (TOS) is the only professional, science-backed framework for representative sampling – for all materials, at all scales, under all conditions.