+45 20 21 45 25 khe.consult@gmail.com

Representative Sampling

Process Analytical Technology


Services for decision making, efficiency and sustainability:


Competence building

Public outreach

Services for decision making, efficiency and profitability:

– Consulting

– Competence building

– Public outreach

Representative Sampling

Process Analytical Technology



KHEC is a valued international resource providing state-of-the-art sampling, process analytical technology (PAT) and chemometric consulting for reliable decision making in science, technology, industry, business and regulating authorities.


Representative sampling, process analytical technologies (PAT) and chemometrics constitute a complement of necessary scientific competences for reliable process monitoring and decision making.
The theory of sampling (TOS) is of critical importance.

why sampling?

Analytical results forming the basis for decision making in science, technology, industry, society must be relevant, valid and reliable.
Materials and process are heterogeneous. Heterogeneity is the arch enemy of all sampling.


KHEC offers consulting, courses and advanced educational outreach in:

  • Theory and Practise of Representative Sampling
  • Process Analytical Technology
  • Multivariate Data Analysis
  • Acoustics Chemometrics

theory of sampling (tos)

The Theory of Sampling provides a complete description of heterogeneity and all types of errors involved in sampling of materials and processes, as well as the necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization.


The impact of KHEC’s activities are:
  • Reduced economic loss
  • Improvements in process efficiency
  • Reduction of raw materials waste
  • Increased, documented ROI
  • Increased scientific credibilty


consulting & outreach

KHE offers on-site audits and consulting combined with TOS training, according to individual client requests (in-person or remote).

KHE is an experienced speaker and lecturer offering presentations, courses and educational outreach: 

  • Theory and Practice of Representative Sampling (TOS)
  • Process Analytical Technology
  • Chemometrics


get in touch


KHE Consulting offers general and dedicated course activities at two levels: introductory and continuing education.

  1. The introductory course runs for two consecutive days, presenting an overview of the systematic framework of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) aimed at allowing participants to professionally identify sampling issues and problems, and having gained a first competence regarding how to resolve these.
  2. The continuing education course is KHE Consulting’s flagship activity, encompassing three days (in a 2d + 1d format). The continuing education course allows for a deeper learning experience, with a pause after the two first course days, meant for assimilating the course documentation in order to get the full learning experience. The concluding third day includes presentation of participants’ own sampling problems – to be solved in plenum. This format allows participants to take ownership of the sampling solutions discussed based on the acquired TOS competence over all three days.

Course documentation:

Both courses are based on of the 2020 textbook “Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Sampling”: https://www.impopen.com/store/Sampling-c142510515

Course format:

KHE Consulting standard courses are offered in both in-person as well as on-line formats.
KHE Consulting also offers dedicated course formats, developed together with clients’ specific wishes.

 Interested in course activities, please contact: khe.consult@gmail.com


Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Sampling

This book presents the Theory of Sampling (TOS) for all readers and audiences starting from level zero. The TOS is presented in a novel didactic framework without excessive background mathematics and statistics that often scare newcomers away. The overall objective is to present a unifying conceptual framework within which all the TOS’ principles, unit operations and sampling error management rules can be understood in the easiest manner possible.

KHE Consulting offers optional versions of  “Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Sampling”, which can be acquired either in print format, or as an E-book. An additional service is also being offered to all purchasers of the book: the opportunity to interact directly on-line with the author via Skype, Teams or Zoom. Individual readers can access up to two hours of exclusive on-line interaction, in which to complete their understanding of the basics of the TOS. See the book homepage here: https://www.impopen.com/store/Sampling-c142510515

Multivariate Data Analysis

This long-anticipated textbook is currently the most up-to-date resource on chemometrics and Multivariate Data Analysis (MVA). The field of chemometrics is the application of multivariate data analysis methodology to solve chemistry-based problems. It explains not only how to understand experimental outputs, but also to put this newfound knowledge into use for deeper scientific understanding or business gains.


Kim H. Esbensen
is an internationally recognised expert and consultant in sampling, chemometrics and PAT (Process Analytical Technology). Through an extensive academic career he has conducted R&D across a wide range of application fields, primarily process industries (minerals, bio-fuel, recycling, environmental monitoring).

Esbensen has been responsible for a university educational program straddling 30+ years in chemometrics, PAT, TOS, instrumental analysis, Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA), process technology and Philosophy of Science and has subsequently developed a widely recognised continuing education concept today offered via KHE Consulting. His CV lists ~250 publications, ~400 lectures/presentations. He is a recipient of the Pierre Gy Sampling Gold Medal (2013), and the Russian Chemometrics Society Gold Medal (2012). In 2003 he inaugurated the biannual series of World Conferences on Sampling and Blending (WCSB), now in its 11.th edition.

  • Adjunct professor, Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark
  • Adjunct professor, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)
  • Assoc. Professor, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi (UQAC)
  • Guest professor (2017) ÉTS – École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal
  • Guest professor (2018) Recinto Universitario de Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
  • Guest professor (2017) University College of SE Norway (HSN)